FOCUS© Outcome Measure - Publications
How do we know the FOCUS works?
A three year research study was completed to examine the validity of the FOCUS. One hundred and fifty-five preschool children with a variety of communication disorders participated in the study. The FOCUS was completed at assessment, the start of treatment and the end of the treatment block. Nine hours of individual and/or group treatment was provided. The FOCUS measured more change during the treatment interval than during the wait list interval, although positive change was measured during both intervals. Some change was expected during the wait list interval as communication strategies were provided to parents during the wait list interval.
Changes on the FOCUS were also compared to a measure of social and emotional skills. As predicted, a moderate correlation was found between this measure and FOCUS scores.
FOCUS is a new broadly applicable measure of ‘communicative participation’ for preschool children. It is able to measure changes in communication skills and participation/performance after 9 hours of speech-language therapy. The predicted relationships with a measure of social-emotional skills were confirmed, indicating that FOCUS has strong construct validity. More detailed results of the FOCUS validity study will be published shortly.
1.SAC-OAC (May 2010). Position Statement on Outcome Measures. Find online here.
2. Thomas-Stonell, N., Oddson, B., Robertson, B., Rosenbaum, P. Validation of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication under Six outcome measure
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. Vol. 55, Issue 6, pgs. 546-552, 2013. DOI: 10.111/dmcn.12123.
Available for free download, click here.
3. Thomas-Stonell, N., Washington, K., Oddson, B., Robertson, B., Rosenbaum, P. Measuring communicative participation using the FOCUS: Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six
Child: Care, Health and Development. Vol. 39, Issue 4, pgs. 474-480, 2013. DOI: 10.1111/cch.12049
4. Washington, K., Thomas-Stonell, N., Oddson, B., McLeod, S., Warr-Leeper, G., Robertson, B., Rosenbaum, P. Construct validity of the FOCUS (Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six): a communicative participation outcome measure for preschool children
Child: Care, Health and Development. Vol. 39, Issue 4, pgs. 481-489, 2013. DOI: 10.1111/cch.12043
Available for free download, click here.
5. Washington, K., Oddson, B., Robertson, B., Rosenbaum, P., Thomas-Stonell, N. Reliability of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS)
Journal of Clinical Practice in Speech-Language Pathology, Vol. 15, Issue 1, pgs. 25-31, 2013.
6. Oddson, B., Washington, K., Robertson, B., Rosenbaum, P. & Thomas-Stonell, N. (2013) Inter-rater Reliability of Clinicians’ Ratings of Preschool Children using the FOCUS©: Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six. Canadian Journal of Speech-Language Pathology & Audiology, 37(2), 170-174.
7. Eadie, T.L., Yorkston, K.M., Klasner, E.R., Dudgeon, B.J., Deitz, J.C., Baylor, C.R., Miller, R.M., & Amtmann, D. (2006). Measuring communicative participation: a review of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15 (4): 207-320.
8. Rosenbaum, P., Cadman, D., Russell, D., Gowland, C., Hardy, S., & Jarvis, S. Issues in measuring change in motor function in children with cerebral palsy. A special communication. Physical Therapy, 70(2), pgs. 125-131, 1990.
9.Thomas-Stonell, N., Oddson, B., Robertson, B., Rosenbaum, P. Predicted and observed outcomes in preschool children following speech and language treatment: Parent and clinician perspectives. Journal of Communication Disorders. Vol. 42, Issue 1, pgs. 29-42, 2009.
10.Thomas-Stonell, N.L., Oddson, B., Robertson, B., Rosenbaum, P., Development of the FOCUS (Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six), a communication outcome measure for preschool children. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 52, pgs. 47-53, 2010.
11.World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health – Children and Youth Version 2007; Geneva: World Health Organization.